Zero Trust Principles
Zero Trust principles are a set of security concepts that aim to protect an organization’s systems, data, and resources by assuming that all access attempts are potentially malicious, even if they are from within a secure network, resource, or application. The following are the key principles of Zero Trust:
- Never trust, always verify: All users, devices, and applications must be verified and authenticated before being granted access to any resources.
- Least privilege access: Access should be granted on a need-to-know basis, and users should only be granted the minimum level of access required to perform their job functions.
- Assume breach: Assume that an attacker has already compromised a secure resource and acts accordingly to limit the attacker’s access and ability to move laterally within the network, system, application, or database.
- Micro-segmentation: Segment resources into small, isolated zones to limit the spread of a breach and prevent attackers from moving laterally.
- Continuous monitoring: All access attempts must be continuously monitored for signs of suspicious behavior, and appropriate action must be taken in response to any suspicious activity.
- Contextual awareness: Security policies and access controls must be based on contextual awareness, such as the user’s role, device location, and sensitivity of the data being accessed.
By following these principles, organizations can better protect their systems, data, and resources from cyber threats. Zero Trust principles help organizations to reduce their attack surface, minimize the impact of a breach, and improve their overall security posture by continuously verifying the identity of users and devices and evaluating the risk profile of access requests.
Data-Centric Security Principles
Data-centric security principles are a set of principles that are focused on protecting an organization’s sensitive data at the data level, as opposed to simply relying on traditional perimeter-based security measures. These principles aim to ensure that the organization’s sensitive data is secured at all times, regardless of its location or how it is being accessed. The following are some of the key principles of data-centric security:
- Data Classification: All data must be classified according to its sensitivity, and access must be granted on a need-to-know basis.
- Persistent Data Encryption: Sensitive data must be encrypted both in transit and at rest to protect it from unauthorized access.
- Data Obfuscation: Sensitive data must be masked or redacted, or replaced with a token, which can be used for certain processes without exposing the underlying data to unauthorized access.
- Data Segregation: Data should be segmented as fine-grained as possible, so that access to data can be limited to the minimum necessary for each access request.
- Data Authorization and Entitlement: User entitlements to data must be granted on a need-to-know basis and only after the identity of the user and device has been verified and the risk profile of the access request has been evaluated.
- Data Loss Prevention (DLP): Measures must be taken to prevent data loss, such as preventing unauthorized copying, printing, or emailing of sensitive data.
Data-centric security principles help organizations to better protect their sensitive data by focusing on securing the data itself, rather than just the perimeter around it. By following these principles, organizations can reduce their attack surface, minimize the impact of a breach, and improve their overall security posture by continuously verifying the identity of users and devices and evaluating the risk profile of access requests.